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Potent Nutritional Support for Joints, Vessels, Skin, Connective Tissue and Discs. This dietary supplement product is the outcome of a rational approach to nutritional support of the body's connective tissues. Connexin� promotes connective renewal and thereby supports wound healing, blood vessel wall strength, renewal of the joint linings and the integrity of the invertebral discs.
The connective tissues are the packing matrix for all the body's cells, tissues and organs. Connective tissues underlie the skin, and are the foundations for the joints, vertebral discs, walls of the blood vessels, bones and countless other supporting and hardened tissues. This network holds the cell and tissues together and provides an organized lattice within which the cells can orient and migrate. Here, the network - rather than the cells - bears most of the mechanical stress to which the tissue is subjected. Connective tissues are specialized for tensile strength and form the architectural framework of the body. Cumulative damage to the body's connective tuissues can markedly affect quality of life.
Some organs rely on their connective tissues more than others. There for connectives are the major components in the skin and bone. Connectives constitute joint surface, tendons, cartilage, ligaments, invertbral discs, walls of the blood vessels, bone matrix and countless other supporting and hardening tissues. Variations in the make-up of the extra cellular network give rise to the diversity of rock-hard structures (bone and teeth), ropelike organization (ligaments, tendons), even transparency (the cornea), but the build up of damage to the body's connective tissues can markedly affect quality of life. For example: joint and disc distortions and dysfunctions cause pain and disability to millions of people in this country.
Biochemically, the term connective tissues ("connective" for simplicity) is a blanket term for the glycosaminoglycan carbohydrate polymers (GAG) that are sometimes linked to proteins as proteoglycans (PG). Complexed with these are fibrous protein polymers: mainly structural (collagen, elastin fibers) and mainly adhesive (fibronectin, laminin). The GAG PG forma a hydrated, gel-like medium in which the fibrous proteins are embedded. The connectives are indispensable for the mechanical support they provide to the organs. Although they lie outside the living cells, they are in a functional continuum with the cells and are also functionally indispensable for each organ.
The Ingredients of Connexin are:
Glucosamine sulfate (GS), which is the amino-substituted monosaccharide glucosamine compounded with sulfate. GS has been proven via double-blind trials to support joint maintenance and renewal. Glucosamine is an orthomolecule naturally present in the body. It is a key substrate for the biosynthesis of the proteoglycans and is a key building block for a variety of connectives. Sulfate becomes incorporated into the forming connective material as it matures. GS works to inhibit joint pain while also facilitating joint cartilage recovery. GS stimulates amino acid incorporation into cartilage and also has pro-homeostatic properties, as proven in classic animal models. In double-blind trials, GS successfully reduced the pain associated with cartilage breakdown, and partially revitalized damaged joint cartilage. GS has virtually zero adverse effects on the stomach and intestine, perhaps because it does not act by blocking the enzyme cyclo-oxygenase.
N-acetyl glucosamine (NAG), an activated metabolite of glucosamine. Although NAG has not been directly evaluated for joint support in clinical trials, it has shown utility in animals. THe enzymes that assemble connective materials from precursors readily utilize NAG "downstream" from glucosamine. That is to say, the oral use of NAG could bypass any metabolic necessity for glucosamine. NAG bypasses the acetylation of glucosamine that in vivo is know to be sensitive to blockage by aspirin and ethanol. NAG also may help to heal the "leaky gut" that sometimes accompanies connective tissue dysfunctions. NAG has antioxidant efficacy - it is an effective quencher of super oxide, one of the oxygen radicals that can disrupt homeostasis. NAG also partially blocks the release of elastase enzyme from immune cells, a phenomenon that normally contributes to spreading tissue breakdown. Elastase can digest collagens, fibronectins and proteoglycan connective fibers, and often plays a prominent role in the degradation of articular cartilage, ligament, tendons and the bone matrix. Thus, both as a "building block" for connectives and as a pro-homeostatic nutrient. NAG may eventually prove to be as clinically effective as glucosamine itself.
Chondroitin sulfate is a relatively low molecular weight, partially polymerized, sulfate galactosaminoglycan that may act in vivo as a nucleating agent for the further steps that result in fully formed proteoglycans (proteinated, sulfated and non-sulfated glycosaminoglycans)
L-proline, L-lysine free amino acids. These are the building blocks for the primary collagen strands which are the major protein of connective tissue and constitute 25% of all protein in mammals. These amino acids also are important for the synthesis of elastin fibers.
Vitamin C/ascorbate. In addition to it's usual roll as a premier water soluble antioxidant for the extra cellular network, ascorbate is an essential confactor for the enzymes which hydroxylate proline and lysine prior to their inclusion in collagen or elastin. Clinical scurvy largely amounts to inadequate tissue integrity resulting from poorly formed collagen.
Silicon, bioavailable as 4x horsetail extract and boron. These dietary essential minerals are involved in cross linking the primary connective strands to generate a final material that has great tensile strength. Inadequate intake of silicon is common, since refined foods and animal products tend to have very little of it. Boron had been shown clinically effective for joint pain and mobility; its roles in connective tissue renewal may be indirect, perhaps through conserving calcium and magnesium or by a normalizing effect on hormones that oppose bone mineral loss (estradiol, testosterone).
Vitamin B6/pyridoxine. In rats, deficiency of this vitamin resulted in osteoporosis. Vitamin B6 helps recycle homocysteine, which when accumulating in excess will interfere with collagen hydroxylation.
Magnesium and calcium, in a 4-to-1 ratio. In this "yin-yang" mineral pair, magnesium is involved in connective tissue renewal and a small amount of calcium is included for balance. Calcium is kept low so as to minimize the risk of calcification of inflamed sub functional tissue.
Zinc and copper, in a 12-to-1 ratio. This "yin-yang" mineral pair is included for both general anabolic character, as well as for its role as essential confactor for the antioxidant enzyme SOD (super oxide dismutase). Copper is essential for the enzymes, which help cross link connective proteins to increase their tensile strength. Manganese is included as the other mineral confactor for SOD. Molybdenum is another mineral essential for tissue homeostasis.
Vitamin E/d-alpha tocopherol; selenium, as selenite and selenomethionine. Antioxidants help protect the connectives against free radicals and other oxidative stressors that often contribute to tissue degradation. Once initiated, degeneration cascades usually generate tremendous fluxes of free radicals in the affected tissue; vitamin E down-regulates such cascades, and acts synergistically with selenium and with the citrates in Connexin to help quench tissue breakdown processes.
Hawthorn extract, standardized. This berry is rich in a variety of bioflavonoids, which collectively exert marked collagen-supportive and antioxidant activity. It also reduces oxidative degradation and the associated connective tissue and bone break down. Over and above its proven efficacy for the circulation, the standardized hawthorn extract has marked clinical benefit for connective tissue support. It may confer its additional protective effects through non-flavonoid action mechanisms.
Proanthocyanidin flavonoids, standardized. This class of bioflavonoids is proven to enhance the toxicity of the micsrocapillaries and other small vessel beds. These grape seed proanthocyanidins are included in Connexin to facilitate perfusion of the tissue beds and to adequately deliver the substrates necessary for renewal of the connectives. They also are known to bind with collagen in blood vessel walls and thereby help shield collagen strands against oxidative breakdown.
Bromelain, a highly effective anti-degradative enzyme from pineapple. This enzyme resists degradation from digestive enzymes during oral dosing; it has been extensively tested and found to have prostaglandin regulating properties. Prostaglandin cascades are centrally involved in tissue breakdown, and by helping to shift the prostaglandin balance bromelain can moderate the breakdown process and speed recovery time.
In summary, Connexin combines GS with NAG, chondroitin sulfate, and includes l-proline and l-lysine to provide the necessary variety of starting substrates for the optimal biosynthesis of connective tissue. Connexin also provides a diversity of other potent nutrients to help shift the metabolic balance in the inflamed joint lining (or other beleaguered connective tissue) away from net breakdown and towards net renewal. Connexin is likely to be useful for wound healing as well as in tendon, ligament and vertebral disc damage since the mechanisms involved in damage to these connectives appear to resemble those operative in the damaged joint lining.
These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. Connexin is intended for use as a dietary supplement.
Four capsules contain: Glucosamine Sulfate 250 mg., N-acetyl glucosamine 450 mg., Chondroitin Sulfate 50 mg., Hawthorn extract, standardized 400 mg., Proanthocyanidin flavonoids (grape seed) 10 mg., L-proline amino acid 100 m., L-lysine amino acid 100 mg., Vitamin B6/pyridoxine (as hydrochloride) 12 mg., Vitamin C/ascorbic acid (from beet) 350 mg., Vitamin E (as d-alpha tocopherol) 125 IU., Magnesium (as citrate) 100 mg., Calcium (as citrate) 25 mg., Zinc (as citrate) 12 mg., Copper (as gluconate) 1 mg., Silicon (as horsetail extract 4x) 20 mg., Manganese (as citrate) 5 mg., Boron (as citrate) 3 mg., Selenium (as sodium selenite. Selenomenthionine) 150 mcg., Molybdenum (as sodium molybdate) 500 mcg., Bromelain, 600 GDU 25mg. Free of: yeast, wheat, corn, soy, egg, milk. gluten, rice, sugar, starch, salt, preservatives, artificial colors, flavors, hormones and antibiotics
Adult recommended dose: 2 capsules twice a day. Higher doses may be indicated as directed by heath care professional. 120 capsules.
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