NeuroRecovery™ is based on the latest clinical research on rebuilding peripheral nerves and the central nervous system. This formulation is optimized to support nerve tissue renewal and remyelination following damage. Sources of damage to nerve cells are found everywhere in modern society. Cumulative research findings indicate problems may arise from consumption of alcohol (which can devastate the brain), cigarette smoke, and cocaine; many pharmaceuticals; and heavy metals, organochlorines and other classes of pollutant chemicals. Emotional stress also exacts a toll on the nerve tissues. Most recently homocysteine, a product of metabolism with great potential for toxicity, has been linked to atherosclerosis with impaired blood delivery to the brain, as well as to nerve network loss in the brain cortex. This formulation provides, in bioavailable and biochemically functional forms, nutrients indicated as having benefit to nerve tissues from clinical trials and other human studies. The orthomolecules and other nutrients in his formulation operate through numerous pathways and influence three pivotal biochemical processes: (1) repletion of antioxidant defenses centered around glutathione redoxpower; (2) down-regulation of homocysteine by its recycling to methionine; (3) facilitation of energy generation and utilization.
- Glutathione (gamma glutamyl cysteinylglycine), GSH. This is the major antioxidant of the cell interior, central to a sophisticated network of redox-powered cellular defense and functional regulation. The vitality and viability of nerve cells are directly related to their GSH status. GSH is a tripeptide (three linked amino acids), and is a potent antitoxin with a sulfhydryl (-SH) group able to donate electrons to neutralize free radicals, recycle oxidized vitamin C, and re-reduce oxidized "hot spots" on DNA. The key antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GP)uses GSH to transform peroxides to less toxic metabolites. The liver's P450 "detoxification" enzyme complexes rely on GSH as a major substrate to conjugate with foreign substances and so facilitate their clearance from the body.GSH is central to all the life processes of sophisticated cells. Among the survival-level, homeostatic cell functions in which GSH is significantly involved, are antioxidant cell protection, numerous oxidation-reduction transformations of intermediary metabolism, protein and DNA synthesis, cell reproduction and cell growth. At higher levels of nerve cell functioning, cellular GSH status influences ion gates and ATPase transporters that manage neuron to neuron transmission via ionic depolarization, and receptors that respond to chemical transmitters at the synaptic junctions between neurons. The importance of GSH for life cannot be overemphasized, and this small molecule may be the ultimate difference between life and death. In a variety of cell types, once GSH levels fall below a certain threshold the cell loses homeostatic competence and cell death is inevitable. NeuroRecovery™ supplies the versatile sulfur-containing, glutathione precursors Alpha-Lipoic Acid (ALA) and N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC).
- Alpha-Lipoic Acid (ALA). This orthomolecule has come to the forefront as a highly potent antioxidant, effective GSH precursor, and nutraceutical nerve rebuilder. It readily crosses cell membranes, reaches the cell interior, and easily gets across the blood-brain barrier to access the brain. Its sulfhydryl groups give ALA potent redox power and capacity to regulate the cell's cytoplasmic activities in its own way. But ALA is not just an antioxidant-it is also a central cofactor in energy production. ALA has been subjected to in-depth clinical testing against nerve damage triggered by oxygen insufficiency, hyperglycemia, toxic chemical attack, and other adverse agents. It has been employed for decades as an antidote for toxic mushroom poisoning, which typically depletes GSH. Its consistent benefits in humans are predicted from its experimental efficacy against a wide array of oxygen radicals and other oxidants, and from its neuroprotective capacities in animal models. ALA's combined strengths at scavenging free radicals, repleting GSH, and supporting ATP production translate into multipronged clinical utility for nerve healing.
- N-AcetylCysteine (NAC). This substance is an effective metabolic precursor to both L-Cysteine and GSH in vivo. It is a safe means to replete the body's reservoirs of cysteine, which is in dynamic homeostatic balance with GSH. NAC has proven clinical utility as a radical scavenger, metalchelator, and anti-inflammatory agent. It is also a routine means for preserving life following acetaminophen(Tylenol�) overdose. NAC is synergized with ALA in this formulation to support GSH homeostasis systemically, not only in the nervous system but in the liver and GI tract which are important for detoxification.
- Folic acid (FA). This vitamin is perhaps the most under-appreciated for its value to the nervous system. Adequate FA is a core requirement for all the methylation pathways and related one-carbon metabolism. These segments of metabolism are crucial to the repair of DNA and RNA and the replacement of nerve cell mass following damage of whatever origin. FA is the main methyl source for the methylation of phospholipids that make up the neurons'cell membrane systems. Folate is readily depleted by many pharmaceuticals, including antacids, oral contraceptives, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, and by lifestyle factors such as smoking. FA deficiency is said to be the most common vitamin deficiency in the world. In the mid-1990s the United States Food and Drug Administration(FDA) implemented food fortification with folate against neural tube defects. One of the earliest indicators of FA deficiency is nerve abnormalities which result in signs of demyelination. Myelination is known to rely heavily on the methylation of phospholipids. In addition, low blood folate associated with marked signs of mental insufficiency, including but not limited to poor mental focus, distractibility and mental fatigue. Folate supplementation often produces marked improvement of these nerve tissue dysfunctions. Supplemental FA is the most effective means for lowering blood and tissue levels of homocysteine (HCy), a provenendogenous toxin. High blood HCy markedly elevates risk for atherosclerosis and heart disease, neural tube defects, dementia, and cognitive decline in the elderly. Folic acid is a highly effective Hcy-lowering agent, but the current level of FA intake, even with food fortification in place, is insufficient to fully control Hcy or to optimize FA status in the population. This formulation provides folic acid, the most proven bioavailable and stable form of the vitamin, at the highest level of daily supplementation allowed by the FDA.
- Vitamin B12, as methylcobalamin and cyanocobalamin. Deficiencies of this vitamin have long been linked to nerve tissue degeneration and atrophy. B12 deficiency in combination with FA deficiency can result in gross atrophy of the spinal cord followed by death. This vitamin is used metabolically in close concert with FA, for the recycling of Hcy into methionine. Among aging adults, B12 deficiency is virtually epidemic and can produce symptoms that resemble dementia. Yet very few dietary supplement formulations provide significant allowances of B12, perhaps because of a belief that this vitamin is only sparingly bioavailable by mouth. Current findings indicate that a daily oral intake of 2 mg can effectively build tissue stores. This formulation provides that same level of intake, half of it as the more active methylcobalamin.
- Vitamin B6, as pyridoxine HCl. Vitamin B6 is a"workhorse" cofactor for a vast array of pathways in which nerve tissues specialize. Its neuroprotective utility is established beyond doubt, as is its synergy with folate and vitamin B12 in methylation and in the transsulfuration of Hcy to cysteine and ultimately GSH. Herein B6 is provided as a generous allowance of pyridoxine HCl.
- L-Glutamine. In addition to its role as a GSH precursor, this amino acid has other importance for nerve tissue. Under conditions of oxygen or glucose deprivation it can be used to make energy for the brain. It is also a metabolic precursor to glutamate. The glial support cells which surround the neurons homeostatically utilize glutamine to make glutamate, acting effectively as a glutamine-glutamate buffering system for the neurons. Glutamate is highly important for synaptic functions, and appears essential to memory formation.
- Inositol. This orthomolecule is sometimes found decreased in cases of peripheral nerve damage. It is a precursor for phosphatidylinositol (PI), a phospholipid that facilitates signal transduction in the membrane systems of the nerve cells. The provision of Inositol in this formula augments the allowance of PI provided by Brain Power™. This multipotent NeuroRecovery™ formulation was designed to effectively support nerve cell membrane and nuclear repair, remyelination, neural plasticity and nerve tract regrowth following damage from whatever source. It was also conceived to complement American Biologics' product Brain Power™. The mature human brain carries undifferentiated stem cells capable of dividing to make new nerve cells. In rat experiments, enrichment of the cage environment led to deployment of stem cells into new brain circuits.